Description

Bacteria of the Chlamydiaceae family are a type of Gram-negative, aerobic microorganism typified by their obligate intracellular lifestyle. They are infected with many mammals. All are non-motile with a coccoid or rod-shaped cell body. They are energetic parasites, they can not synthesize ATP, for these they are using hosts cell. It contains two genera: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila.

Chlamydia

  • Chlamydia muridarum (hamsters and mice)
  • Chlamydia suis (swine)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (human)

Chlamydophila

  • Chlamydophila abortus (in mammals, including humans, endemic among ruminants such as cows and sheep and has been associated with abortion in a horse, a rabbit, guinea pigs, mice, pigs, and humans)
  • Chlamydophila caviae (Guinea pigs)
  • Chlamydophila felis (cats, Zoonotic infection of humans with  felis has been reported)
  • Chlamydophila pecorum (only from mammals: cattle, sheep, and goats (ruminants), koalas (marsupials), and swine)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae (human)
  • Chlamydophila psittaci (avian, Zoonotic infection of humans with psittaci has been reported, potential hosts include feral birds and domesticated poultry, as well as cattle, pigs, sheep, and horses)

Each species target specific hosts and can cause a range of illnesses that vary between host species. Some chlamydial species such as C. abortusC. caviaeC. felisC. muridarumC. pecorum, and C. psittaci are important pathogens that are associated with high morbidities in mammals. For example, C. abortus causes abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans. C. trachomatis is the cause of an infection commonly transmitted sexually (often referred as just “Chlamydia”) and also is the cause of trachoma, an infectious eye disease, spread by eye, nose, and throat secretions. Importantly, some of these animal pathogens (C. felis, C. psittaci) have been recognized as zoonotic agents that pose a significant infectious threat to human health through cross-over transmission.

 

Clinical sings

It is important to know that chlamydia infection usually has no symptoms. The symptoms of the disease depend on the type of chlamydia and the type of infected individual. Infected people tend to experience the following symptoms: pain or burning during urination, pain during sex, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge (may be yellowish and strongly odorous), pus or watery/milky penis discharge, swollen or sensitive testes, pain, discharge and/or bleeding around the rectum. Chlamydia infections may cause itching, itching or discharge. Sometimes Chlamydia infections in the throat cause pain, but are rare.

Symptoms of C.psittaci infection:

  • discharge from the eyes or nose
  • diarrhea
  • discolored droppings (urine or feces) in various shades of green
  • weight loss
  • lethargy and sleepiness

 

Transmission

The majority of the members in the Chlamydiaceae family are known pathogenic organisms that primarily infect the host mucosal surfaces in both humans and animals.

Transmission is different from species to species:

  • trachomatis– is a well-known etiological agent for ocular and genital sexually transmitted diseases. Smear infection via discharge from the eyes or nose of infected persons

It can be transmitted by – direct contact, clothes, or insects.

– sexual intercourse

– vaginal birth (in which the mother is infected)

– sexual intercourse

  • pneumoniae: has been implicated in community-acquired pneumonia in humans Person-to-person transmission of respiratory secretions
  • psittaci: Transmission of disease from one host to another is primary by air. Infected birds excrete the bacteria in secretions from nose and eyes, it can be also in droppings and in dust from feathers. Pathogens are also in the feces of birds. Although psittacosis is a rare disease in humans, the transmission of Chlamydia psittaci from birds on a human was confirmed in some cases. The infection of this bacterium is dangerous for elderly, sick, immunosuppressive people, and pregnant women.

 

Diagnostics

We are using for detection of quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR system.

 

Samples

The analysis is performed from the swabs of cloaca, choana, nostrils, conjunctiva, blood (whole blood in anticoagulant EDTA).