Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living microorganisms, and they belong to genus of Gram negative, aerobic, pathogenic bacteria that have been isolated from many animal species.

Some species are part of the natural microflora of the mucous membranes. Certain species may be involved in the development of certain diseases, e.g., in the development of pneumonia (M. cynos) or urogenital tract infections (M. canis, M. spumans).

Approximately 30% to 50% of male dogs and 23% to 75% of bitches have mycoplasmas in the genital tract, and mixed infections with other bacteria and mycoplasma species are common. Mycoplasma canis has often been detected in dogs with urogenital disease and infertility. Even after prolonged antibiotic treatment, it is still possible to detect M. canis in samples from the prostate, epididymis, and chronically inflamed bladder wall in some dogs. Long-term mycoplasma infection in males caused chronic urethritis and epididymitis, and enlarged uterus and endometritis were observed in bitches.

Males infected with mycoplasma can produce fertility problems with or without evidence of testicular infection, prostatitis, or scrotal swelling. The infection leads to inflammatory processes that create unfavorable conditions for sperm production.

Other effects on sperm may include altered sperm motility, interference with normal sperm metabolism by which the sperm recognizes the ova, impaired egg penetration, and autoimmune sperm damage.

As infection of dogs with microorganisms can significantly reduce their fertility, dogs infected with mycoplasma should not be used for breeding until antibiotic treatment has been completed and subsequent testing has been performed to confirm that the dog is no longer a carrier. Breeding dogs should not be allowed to naturally cover bitches suspected of carrying mycoplasma.

Molecular detection by PCR, which offers a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, is the preferred method and is much faster than culture methods.


Clinical signs

The disease can have more phases of different severity. The most common clinical signs are tachypnea, depression, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, dehydration, icterus, and splenomegaly.

Symptoms can vary depending on where the bacteria are located. These are some of the signs you might notice in your dog:



Inflammation of the nose (rhinitis)

Eye inflammation (conjunctivitis)

Fluid build-up and discharge from the eyes

Difficulty breathing (pneumonia)

Infection in the bladder, urinary tract, or vagina


Joint disease (polyarthritis)

General systemic illness (weight loss, fever)

Neurological symptoms (meningoencephalitis)



Contact with sick dogs

Staying in a kennel or shelter (especially long term)

Possible air contamination with M. cynos (found in one study)

Mating with infected dogs

Blood transfusion

Blood exchange during fighting



We are using for detection quantitative PCR system.



0.2 ml urine, or urogenital swab